Representing the Past:A Pilot Study of Various Forms of History
-- Examplied by Atayal Cultural Writing and Wushe Incident related Comics
在許多的研究中，線性歷史（linear history）與循環歷史（cyclical history）經常被用來區辨兩種不同歷史心性下的歷史時間觀念。這兩種歷史心性之別，或被解釋為西方與非西方的，或被視為文字書寫文化與無文字書寫文化的，或是「近代民族主義下」與「傳統歷史心性」的區分（引自王明珂1999：283-342）。
In many studies, it is common to use linear history and cyclical history to distinguish two kinds of mindsets of time frames. These two historical mindsets sometimes are expressed as western vs non-western, written-form cultures vs non-written-form culture, or ‘modern nationalistic’ vs ‘traditional historical mindset’(王明珂1999：283-342).
In this article, I use Atayal’s‘gaga’ stories as examples. I intend to explain why Atayal’s historical mindset has been neither linear nor cyclical, but an emphasis on repeating a united base for a small society, the relationship in ethic level. Atayal have created a collective production unit around the base, with sharing the sense of guilt- and work . These ‘gaga’ stories show the historical mindset based on interpersonal affections. This kind of historical mindset used to be prevailing in Atayal societies, and still exists in many Atayal people’s perceptions. I call the narrative stories in ‘gaga’ collectively as ‘primordial history.’ This article starts by the awareness to the question of ‘how to represent history,’ then use text expressing forms of different stages to discuss the writing rights issues aroused when the Atayal culture, literature writings and Wushe incident related comics were represented. Finally I would try to reconstruct the connection between authors and resulting texts, in the context of cultural interpretation and construction.
To the Atayal, being ruled by the different colonial authorities in recent hundred years constituted a process, leading them from ‘wordless’ to ‘writing’. When they were firstly exposed to writing, they had to face the associated historical and political conflicts of different ethic groups. Not only the competitions among intruding political forces and cultures made Atayal people lose their own autonomy and twist their self identity, but various ruling regimes constantly competed for the position for interpretation, based on imposed ideologies. We can see the inherent influences of ‘gaga’ in some Atayal and Seediq people. In the beginning toward writing, the calling rooted in history is the fundamental difference between Atayal and Seediq and other ethnics.
Keywords: writing, Atayal, representation, history, Wushe Incident