2015年12月4日 星期五

論「一九三○年台灣儒墨論戰」――前史、論述、殖民地情境

研究論文 
Research Article

論「一九三○年台灣儒墨論戰」――前史、論述、殖民地情境

The 1930’s Debates between Taiwanese Confucianism and Mohism: On the Early History, Discourses, and Colonial Situation

李威寰
Li, Wei-Huan

摘要

        1930年台灣儒墨論戰,是日治時期台灣傳統學術的重要事件,從該年4月到9月,不到五個月的時間裡,雙方在台灣各報刊上,發表了近五十篇文章,參與者包括黃純青、連雅堂、張純甫、顏笏山等人。經過本文研究,這場論戰在台灣思想史上的意義可分為三個部份:第一、如果我們由1930年往前探究,可以發現台灣墨學的興起,其實與中日兩國的學術風氣緊密連結,例如中國自晚清開始,以墨學與西學相對照,使墨學大興,影響了台灣讀墨的風氣;日本以科學客觀的態度重新詮釋傳統學問,使台灣人能以新的眼光看待墨學。第二、挑起論戰的擁墨派有明顯的主要動機,就是希望以墨學思想引起群眾關心公共事務,這就是「墨子公利說」,也是「論戰」的主軸;要達到這個「興公利」的目標,前提是要解決傳統觀念中,墨學有害道德倫常的成見,因此,「兼愛與倫常之辯」就是雙方的攻防重點;至於「難為易為之辯」、「考據問題」,較屬於枝微末節的爭論。上述「論戰」中的論述層次,是本文仔細分析論戰諸文的結果,似能發前人所未言。第三、「論戰」之所以能形成,傳統文人身處的「殖民地情境」是一個重要原因,因為傳統文人極擔憂異族統治下,傳統儒教倫常日漸消亡,因此對於任何削弱正統儒教倫理的言論都非常敏感,以致起而反墨,這是「論戰」形成的重要原因。

關鍵詞:台灣儒墨論戰、黃純青、張純甫、《非墨十說》、連雅堂

Abstract

        The 1930’s debates between Taiwanese Confucianism and Mohism were important in the traditional academic community during the Japanese colonial period. Between April to September of 1930, almost fifty articles were issued in Taiwan’s newspapers in six months. The authors included Huang Chun-Qing (黃純青), Lien Ya-Tang (連雅堂), Chang Chun-Pu (張純甫), Yan Hu-Shan (顏笏山). There are three primary significances in the debates between Taiwanese Confucianism and Mohism for the history of thought in Taiwan.

        First, an investigation into the history of Mohism in Taiwan reveals that the general mood of Chinese and Japanese learning had a very important influence on the development of Mohism in Taiwan. The development of Mohism in Taiwan was based on the comparison between Western learning and Mohism in Chinese, as well as the impersonal attitude of academic research in Japan.

       Second, advocates of Mohism had a key motivation and goal for initiating the debates, which was to give rise to public administrative matters and demonstrate the collective interest in Mohism. To achieve this goal, they had to dispel the prejudices regarding the conflict between Mohism and Confucian ethics, which was the major controversy in these debates. However, the “debates on Mohism practice” and the “subject of textual research” were minor matters in the debates between Taiwanese Confucianism and Mohism.

        Third, the “colonial situation” was the catalyst for the debates between Taiwanese Confucianism and Mohism. At the time, most Taiwanese traditional scholars were concerned that Confucian morals were going to wither away in the colonial system, and so they were very sensitive to any discourses which were weakening Confucian morals. As such, this constituted an important reason for participation in the debates.

Keywords: Debates on Taiwanese Confucianism and Mohism, Huang Chun-Qing (黃純青), Chang Chun-Pu (張純甫), Ten Discourses Against Mohism (非墨十說), Lien Ya-
Tang (連雅堂)

「出神 」與「凝注」:詩人的心怎麼會去得這樣遠――葉維廉詩學專訪

研究誌要 
Research Note

「出神 」與「凝注」:詩人的心怎麼會去得這樣遠――葉維廉詩學專訪

Ecstasy and Concentration: How Can a Poet’s Mind Go so Far —— Exclusive Interview with Wai-Lim Yip

翁文嫻
Yung, Man-Han

摘要

       中國現代詩學領域,涵蓋面與著作同樣豐盛的是葉維廉。海內外一致推崇他對中西文化研究的經歷,將之視為比較文學的大師級人物。葉維廉詩學開出這雙向的學術視野:一、西方翻譯所可能遭遇的問題;二、中國傳統「翻譯」可能遭遇的問題――「翻譯」一詞在今天已變成顯學,成為一地區文化與另一地區文化,異質交錯所必然出現的種種誤讀或新增事物。相隔五十年,台灣在國際舞台漸漸成熟的狀態下,正可彼此映襯,辨識葉維廉詩學過程的突破與困境,在暗影底層,亦可反照台灣在古典或西方傳統相遇時出現的事物。

        筆者乃申請了一項二年期國科會計畫「葉維廉詩學對台灣詩壇的貢獻研究」,並於2014年7月,至葉維廉任教的加州大學聖地亞哥分校,與詩人學者作一次實地考察與訪談。內容有關葉氏在聖地亞哥,歷年詩教學課程、詩活動的現場資料搜集。另一更重要的是:葉氏在中國古典與西方詩學的縱深融匯中,開出有關現代詩語言美學的系列訪談與請益。

        以下的訪談,內容包括「瞬間」美學的再延伸、翻譯的要領、東西方語言轉換的前衛性探討、「瞬間」或「線性連結」的句法傳承狀態……。這些都是台灣詩學討論中,鮮有人觸及的議題。葉老師長期用英文思考,因而對華語詩壇內的抽象領域特別深入,侃侃而談,非常難能可貴。

關鍵詞:葉維廉、翻譯、瞬間美學、線性連結、語言的前衛性

Abstract

        Wai-Lim Yip presents equivalent richness of coverage and writings in Chinese modern poetry. His Chinese and Western cultural studies are highly praised domestically and internationally, and he is considered a leading scholar of comparative literature. Wai-Lim Yip’s poetics opens the bi-directional academic horizons of: 1. possible problems encountered with Western translation; and, 2. possible problems encountered with traditional Chinese “translation.” The term “translation” is now a famous school and has become a certain erroneous reading or appended objects appearing from the heterogeneous stagger between one local culture and another local culture. After a half century, after Taiwan has matured on the international stage, two such axes of Wai-Lim Yip’s poetry present the antithesis; the breakthrough and dilemma in the process of identifying Wai-Lim Yip’s poetics could reflect the objects appearing on the encounter of Taiwan with classics or Western tradition.

        The two-year project supported by the Ministry of Science and Technology, namely ‘A study on the contribution of Wai-Lim Yip’s poetics to Taiwan poetry,’ was preceded by the author observing and interviewing Wai-Lim Yip at the University of California San Diego, where the poet was teaching, in July, 2014. The content covered Yip’s poetry instructional curricula and the poetry activity sites in San Diego. More importantly, the linguistic aesthetics of modern poetry from Yip’s integration of Chinese classics and Western poetics were covered in the interview and consultation.

        The following interview transcription contains the extension of “instant” aesthetics, the essentials of translation, the inquiry of avant-garde Eastern/Western language conversion, and the syntactic heritage of “instant” or “linear connection,” which are issues seldom discussed in Taiwanese poetics. The long-term thinking in English has Professor Yip go particularly deep into the abstract in Chinese poetry, and the easy and confident talk is valuable.

Keywords: Wai-Lim Yip, translation, instant aesthetics, linear connection, avant-garde of language

本土語言與商業利益的結合 ――台中和花蓮的台語看板研究

研究論文 
Research Article

本土語言與商業利益的結合――台中和花蓮的台語看板研究

A Study of Signboards in Taiwanese Language in Taichung and Hualien

何信翰
Ho, Hsin-Han

摘要

        本土語言的復振是許多有識之士的共同理想。但要成功達成目標並非容易,若沒有好的方法,將難以達成。而在種種方法之中,「將本土語言和經濟利益結合,使之具有經濟效益」是最有效的方法之一。本論文對此踏出了第一步,分析台語看板在經濟高度發展區(台中市南屯區)以及相對經濟活動不那麼發達的區域(花蓮市、吉安鄉)的使用狀況。藉此分析出台語看板在兩邊的使用可能性;並透過產業分析以及分布區域分析,分析出各產業對台語的接受程度,以及重劃、招牌密度、人口密度對台語看板的影響。這些資料在未來都可以提供商界和學界、以及政府參考,做為突破台語使用限制的背景知識。

關鍵詞:台語看板、本土語言、語言復振、商業利益

Abstract

        The main purpose of this paper is to conduct a census of all the signs in Taiwanese. Through the analysis of these signs, we can better understand the use situation in different social classes, areas, industries, and groups. Then, we can make suggestions for “How to combine the language revitalization and economic interests, so that more masses will agree with the measures that are proposed by the advocates of language revitalization.”

        Nowadays, the biggest obstacles of the language revival movement are the negative attitude opposition of some groups of people. These obstacles generally stem from the advocates usually thinking from the perspective of “producer center,” not “consumer center,” and from focusing only on “how to teach” and “what is a good language policy” and not paying attention to “why people should support the native language? .” Our study will offer these advocates another perspective and specific practices.

        In this paper, we analyze the situation of using signs in Taiwanese between an economically developed area (Taichung) and an economically less-developed area (Hualian). Through the analysis, we examine the effects of economic development, population density, and the industrial distribution on the use of signs in Taiwanese.

Keywords: The signs in Taiwanese, local languages, language revitalization, commercial interests

日治時代初期渡台日人眼中的台灣話


特稿
Feature Article

日治時代初期渡台日人眼中的台灣話 

The Taiwan Language Observed by Japanese Voyagers to Taiwan in the Early Stages of the Japanese Colonial Period

樋口靖
Higuchi, Yasushi

摘要

        明治28年(1895),日本接受台灣之初,踏上台灣土地的日人,全面開始跟台灣語言接觸,發現台灣的語言情況相當複雜,內台人之間為意思疏通有所困擾。由於通曉台灣話的日人極少,迫於語言交流的需要,總督府一方面著手使台灣居民學習日語的教育政策,一方面開始研究和學習台灣語言。結果,由明治28年夏天起短短兩三年之間世上現出了許多提供日、台人士參考的有關語言教學方面的刊物。眾所周知,領台時期,總督府民政局在台語教研方面取得了輝煌的業績。總督府設計的假名發音標記系統,漢字標記以及通過日台、台日辭典來提示的龐大的台語語彙提供了要學習台語的日人很多方便。但是,在這種官方標音方式被廣泛日人台語學習者接受之前,處於一定程度的混亂狀態是免不了的。從明治28年至29年,出現了幾種台語會話速成教科書。一看到這些課本,我們就可以發現其內容差勁,標音方式也是各行其是而且是非常不準確的。採用哪種注音方式只是一個純粹的技術問題。不過,注音注得是否準確就涉及到其對音系有無深刻的知識。而會話內容的簡陋是因為對其語言結構和語言文化的瞭解不深的緣故。領台最初期,除了伊澤、小川等部分語言專家之外,渡台日人的台語認識是非常膚淺的。跟民眾直接交際的警務官、教員或政務官,甚至連從軍渡臺的通譯官都幾乎無例外,更何況過海渡「新領土」設法謀生的一般民眾呢。總督府學務部急於頒布官方注音方式的原因也在於此。當時,日人對於台灣語言的認識及認識程度究竟如何?此時期,那些簡單會話讀本以外,還陸續出版了很多台灣研究書,裏面包括幾本由軍部編纂的比較正式的台灣情況報告書,但是,其大部分都是應時性的通俗台灣案內書。但,值得注意的是作者親自探看的台灣語言實況的報告在裏面處處可見。本文的目的是在透過領台最初期出現的有關台灣語學及台灣案內等的一些原始資料來繪出當時日本人眼中的一個台灣語言肖像。

關鍵詞:陸軍通譯官、憲兵、下士上等兵、民間人、台灣地名

Abstract

        In 1895, Taiwan was incorporated into Japan as its first colony. A lot of Japanese, including administrators, soldiers, teachers, policemen, and general citizens came to Taiwan. At that time, the Japanese arrivals came into contact with the various languages of Taiwan, and realized that Taiwanese 台湾語 was the most important language in Taiwan for administration, military operation, education, and commerce, etc. Japanese teachers and policemen were required to acquire some Taiwanese language skills, and were able to receive such education at a few government-owned language schools. However, soldiers and general citizens had almost no chance to learn Taiwanese at a formal language school.. The army needed to communicate with the locals in Taiwanese languages for military operations. The army demanded that some soldiers acquire limited Taiwanese language abilities, and training of the special interpreters was also strongly needed. In particular, military police came into direct contact with the locals, and so it was extremely important that they were able to speak Taiwanese. Then, the military quickly prepared many language teaching materials and language teachers. Accordingly, these Taiwanese textbooks now serve as good research materials to better understand the real situation of Taiwanese languages 120 years ago. The Japanese general citizens who traveled to Taiwan in those days did not have a deep understanding of the Taiwanese language. Therefore, the descriptions concerning Taiwanese language in their travel records is very superficial and confused. Nevertheless, they, too, constitute good data to examine Taiwanese language recognition at that time. This paper aims to discuss how the Japanese perceived the language of Taiwan through the investigation of a lot of travel records to Taiwan and Taiwanese textbooks published in the early stages of the Japanese colonial period, i.e. 水野遵《台灣征蕃記》A Record of Savage Conquest, 福島安正《淡水新政記》A Record of New Government in Tansui, 秋山啓之《實用日台新語集》Practical New Language of Japanese and Taiwanese, 姬田良造《台灣土語入門》Introduction to Taiwan Native Language, 俣野和吉《軍人用台灣語》Taiwanese for Soldiers, etc.

Keywords: civilians, soldiers, militery policemen, interpreters, Taiwanese textbooks


用台語實行的日語教育與「日台基本漢字」

特稿
Feature Article

用台語實行的日語教育與「日台基本漢字」

Application of Taiwanese Pronunciation to Japanese Language Education and “the Japanese-Taiwanese Fundamental Characters”

中澤信幸
Nakazawa, Nobuyuki

摘要

        台灣很流行學日語,學習的時候主要用中文(北京話)。但是,實際上北京話音與現代日本漢字音有不少乖離之處,這對台灣的日語學習者來說是很大的障礙。另方面,比起北京話,台語(閩南語)的發音與日本漢字音有更多相似。所以本文提出在台灣用台語實行日語教育的可行性。

       為了證實此點,筆者認為有必要先驗證用台語發音來熟記日文漢字讀音的效果。筆者使用日文漢字讀音、台語讀音及國語製作問卷,針對在台灣的大學476名日語學習者進行調查,結果證實,熟記日語漢字讀音時使用台語讀音能達到一定程度的效果。

        有鑑於此,本文提議用《日台大辭典》(1907)付錄的「日台字音便覽」,做成「日台基本漢字」發音對照表,將日語、台語及國語(北京語)併記,製作相關教材。同時也提議,在「日台基本漢字」發音對照表中,加上中文的各個方言音、朝鮮漢字音、越南漢字音,構築「東亞共同漢字」發音對照表。

關鍵詞:日語教育、台語的發音、日文漢字讀音、日台基本漢字、東亞共同漢字

Abstract

        With the current Japanese language education in Taiwan, theycontrast Japanese with Mandarin Chinese. However Mandarin Chinese pronunciation is quite different from Sino-Japanese pronunciation.Therefore, Sino-Japanese pronunciation is a difficult problem for Taiwanese students learning Japanese. On the other hand, Taiwanesepronunciation has more common features with Sino-Japanese than Mandarin Chinese. Accordingly, it is suggested to apply Taiwanese pronunciation to Japanese language education.

        In order to apply Taiwanese pronunciation, it is necessary to verify the effectiveness of memorizing Sino-Japanese pronunciations based on their corresponding Taiwanese pronunciations. In doing so, a questionnaire with Sino-Japanese pronunciations and their corresponding Taiwanese and Mandarin Chinese pronunciations was created. This survey was
completed by 476 Japanese learners at various universities in Taiwan. The results show that Taiwanese pronunciations can indeed provide certain improvements in the memorization of Sino-Japanese pronunciations. 

        In this paper, “the Japanese-Taiwanese fundamental characters’ contrastive phonetic table” is constructed from “Nichi-Tai Jion Binran,” which appeared in Nichi-Tai Daijiten (Japanese-Taiwanese Great Dictionary) published in 1907. Accordingly, application this contrastive phonetic table, and making up a textbook including Japanese, Taiwanese, and Mandarin Chinese are proposed. The construction of “the common characters of East Asia,” which adds Chinese dialects, Sino-Korean, and Sino-Vietnamese to this contrastive phonetic table is also proposed.

Keywords: Japanese education as a foreign language, Taiwanese pronunciation, Sino-Japanese pronunciation, the Japanese-Taiwanese fundamental characters, the common characters of East Asia

編輯室報告(第八期)

        《台灣文學研究》期刊第八期收錄了特稿的日文論文兩篇、投稿論文兩篇、投稿研究誌要(訪談)一篇,共計五篇文章。本期開創了本雜誌新的起始,收錄了日文論文以及台灣語言研究,即初次採用不同的語種以及研究領域。編者認為台灣文學的定義及其涵蓋的範圍之廣,歸因於歷時的重層經驗和異語族文化間之接觸、融合演變的結果。台灣文學在日治時期間中西思潮起伏、各類文體交替、語碼轉換乃至於台灣語文論戰等種種攸關語言和文學的論述,在這樣的背景下產出的文學,的確是台灣文學花園中不可或缺的一片特色花卉。而這樣的想法一般而言毋庸置疑。又從文學語言的角度來說,台灣文學的語言顯然涵蓋了台語文學、客語文學、原住民語文學,一旦收束了華語文學,自不該把以台灣為主體的日語文學摒除在外。又從文學和語言的相關性來看,語言學和文學的關係就同如弓之於箭,互為利器、如同天和地之相連乃渾然天成,兩者之間無法切割。

        本期的兩篇特稿來自於去年本系和台灣語文學會主辦的「第十屆台灣語言及其教學國際學術研討會――台灣語言的接觸、融合與演變」中發表的日文論文,經修正後再投的稿件。第一篇是中澤信幸著〈用台語實行的日語教育與「日台基本漢字」〉。利用問卷調查法以及日治時期重要的辭典資料的再利用,對現代的台語和日語教育提出建言以及學習的材料。作者對476名學日語的台灣大學生進行問卷調查的結果顯示,使用台語讀音和熟記日語漢字讀音間有確實相互增進的效果。所以利用台語發音和日語漢字音的相似的特點,以《日台大辭典》(1907)付錄中的「日台字音便覽」的漢字為基本,提供「日台基本漢字」日語、台語及國語(北京語) 的發音對照表。第二篇是樋口靖著〈日治時代初期渡台日人眼中的台灣話〉,該論文透過文獻學的方法,探討日本治台之初總督府民政局帶頭研發的假名發音表記系統、漢字系統、各類台語教材讀本、軍部編撰的台灣情況報告書以及台日與日台大辭典等台語教研資料之背景以及其優缺點。嘗試透過這些日人田野探勘的原始資料,試圖描繪出當時日本人眼中的台灣語言肖像。

        本期的投稿論文兩篇剛好和前述特稿有時代背景的相互對應關係。〈論一九三○年台灣儒墨論戰」――前史、論述、後殖民情境〉也是透過文獻資料討論一九三○年代前後日治期間西方科學客觀態度和墨學興起的關係,以及殖民語境所引起的台灣儒墨論戰之所以和同時代中國產生差異的背景。另外一篇投稿論文〈本土語言與商業利益的結合――台中和花蓮的台語看板研究〉,調查台中和花蓮兩地的台語看板的使用情形,分析不同區域間各產業對台語的接受程度,以及重劃、招牌密度、人口密度對台語看板的影響。試圖透過結合台語文與經濟活動,突破現代本土語言教育發展的困境。最後收錄的研究誌要〈「出神」與「凝注」:詩人的心怎麼會去得這樣遠――葉維廉詩學專訪〉是承接本刊第五期特稿〈台灣古典漢詩翻譯〉葉維廉先生介紹台灣古典詩英譯的作品後,這一期透過對葉維廉先生的訪談,闡明葉先生學術視野發生的背景以及其翻譯的內涵與方法。翁文嫻從「瞬間」美學的再延伸、翻譯的要領、東西方語言轉換的前衛性探討、「瞬間」或「線性連結」的句法傳承狀態等視角整理其訪談內容,進而囊探中國古典與西方詩學的縱深融匯的翻譯問題。

        綜觀本期收錄的文稿,跨越語文、研究領域又同時有歷時的交錯,頗有闢古以開今之期許。最後,本期編輯工作之所以能夠順利完成,衷心感謝編輯助理王維碩、劉庭彰兩位先生全面性的奉獻和用心、鳳氣至純平先生特別協助日文論文的編排和校對。感謝本期編輯委員會的同仁全體――楊雅惠、陳建忠、曾吉賢、林瑞明、施懿琳、游勝冠、鍾秀梅、廖淑芳、劉乃慈諸位老師,和審查委員們的全力支持與配合。(陳麗君)

2015年6月26日 星期五

賴惠川竹枝詞的生命禮俗內涵論析

研究論文
Research Article

賴惠川竹枝詞的生命禮俗內涵論析

A Study Investigating the Connotations of Etiquette and Customs in Lai Hui-Chuan’s Bamboo Poetry

歐純純
Ou, Chun-Chun

摘要 

        嘉義文人賴惠川,其《悶紅墨屑》與《續悶紅墨屑》,乃台灣竹枝詞之瑰寶,數量為台灣文人之冠,其內容亦包羅萬象,將台灣風土民情之可資記述者,用心地寫入詩中。其中關於台灣生命禮俗的詩作,描寫台灣先民面對生老病死時的應對禮儀,此實為台灣文化的一大資產。今本文透過次級資料分析、歷史比較研究法、訪談法的運用,企圖了解賴惠川筆下的生命禮俗,包括「婚嫁禮俗」、「育兒禮俗」、「喪葬與祭祖禮俗」,其內在意義與外在形式究竟為何?以及它們在時代的變遷中,是否有過什麼樣的變化?就現代的社會環境而言,有沒有哪些禮俗需要進行調整?哪些仍須加以傳承和發揚?生命禮俗是每個人一生中無法脫離的根本大法,從出生至死亡,皆與之相關,因此本文以此項課題進行研究,希望為建構賴惠川文學體系盡一份力量,也為保存與發揚台灣民俗文化發揮一些作用。

關鍵詞:生命禮俗、竹枝詞、悶紅墨屑、賴惠川、續悶紅墨屑

Abstract

        Lai Hui-Chuan is a literatus in Chiayi whose Men Hong Mo Xie and Su Men Hong Mo Xie are thought to be valuable bamboo poetry in Taiwan. He was the most prolific bamboo poetry writer in Taiwan, and the content of his bamboo poetry was all-inclusive. He attentively documented the customs and culture of Taiwan in his bamboo poetry. His bamboo poetry about the etiquette and customs of Taiwan described the corresponding etiquette and customs related to birth, aging, illness, and the death of ancestors, and it is essentially a great cultural asset for Taiwan. In this study, a secondary data analysis, a historical comparative method, and interviews were used to gain an understanding of the internal meaning and external form of the etiquette and customs depicted in the writing of Lai Hui-Chuan, including “marriage rituals,” “parenting etiquette,” and “funeral rites and worship” as well as their changes over time. In terms of a modern social environment, are there any forms of etiquette and customs that require adjustment? Which of them should be inherited and carried forward? Etiquette and customs are fundamental rules that follow everyone and are associated with people from birth to death. Therefore, in this study, an investigation was made of this theme in order to contribute to the establishment of the literary system of Lai Hui Chuan, as well as the preservation and promotion of customs and culture in Taiwan.

Keywords: Etiquette and customs, Bamboo poetry, Men Hong Mo Xie, Lai Hui-Chuan, Su Men Hong Mo Xie